Przejdź do głównej treści Przejdź do nawigacji
Centre of Migration Research

Marek Kupiszewski, Philip Rees, Aneta Piekut, Gill Valentine. 2012.

Multidimensional diversity in two European cities: thinking beyond ethnicity


Environment and Planning A 44(12) | pages: 2988-3009



This paper shifts discussion on social diversity from ethnic diversity to broader social diversity. We explore spatial social diversity and assess opportunities to encounter diversity in an urban context. In doing so, we prepared a description of diversity in the residential communities of two cities, Leeds and Warsaw, using census data for small areas (UK 2001, Poland 2002). Selected variables were used to represent the key social dimensions of diff erence: demographic, socioeconomic, ethnic, and disability. A cluster analysis using a k-means algorithm was implemented for each city separately and for the two cities combined using harmonized indicators. We selected eight cluster solutions for each city which had diff erent profi les and spatial distributions. A combined cluster analysis showed that there was little overlap in community types across the two cities. The paper illustrates that Leeds and Warsaw residents experience very diff erent opportunities to encounter diff erence which need to be taken into account when local diversity policies are implemented.


diversity, cluster analysis, age groups, occupations, ethnic groups, nationality groups, Leeds, Warsaw