Przejdź do głównej treści Przejdź do nawigacji
Centre of Migration Research

Halina Grzymała-Moszczyńska, Aleksandra Grzymała-Kazłowska. 2014.

The Anguish of Repatriation: Immigration to Poland and Integration of Polish Descendants from Kazakhstan


East European Politics and Societies and Cultures Volume 28 Number 3 | pages: 593-613



Repatriation remains an unsolved problem of Polish migration policy. To date, it has taken place on a small scale, mostly outside of the state’s repatriation system. Thousands of people with a promised repatriation visa are still waiting to be repatriated. The majority of the repatriates come from Kazakhstan, home to the largest population of descendants of Poles in the Asian part of the former USSR. They come to Poland not only for sentimental reasons, but also in search of better living conditions. However, repatriates—in particular older ones—experience a number of problems with adaptation in Poland, dominated by financial and housing-related issues. A further source of difficulties for repatriates, alongside their spatial dispersion, insufficient linguistic and cultural competencies, and identity problems, is finding a place on and adapting to the Polish labor market. Despite their difficult situation and special needs, the repatriates in Poland are not sufficiently supported due to the inefficiency of administration and non-governmental institutions dealing with the task of repatriates’ integration. This results in the anguish of repatriation.


repatriation; repatriates from Kazakhstan; Polish integration policy; immigration to Poland; Polish minority in the former USSR