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Centre of Migration Research

Anzhela Popyk, Magdalena Lesińska. 2023.

Imperative practices: The political inclusion of diasporas in Poland, Hungary and Lithuania

This work was funded by National Science Center of Poland, grant number 2018/31/B/HS5/00913.


This paper aims to present an in-depth comparative analysis of how three states in Central and Eastern Europe—Hungary, Poland and Lithuania—ensure the political inclusion of their diaspora members by providing citizenship and electoral rights. The authors promote a broad understanding of diaspora that includes both emigrants and descendants as well as kin minorities. The analysis is based on a three-dimensional analytical model (Lesińska & Popyk, CMR Spotlight 2, 2021) of diaspora policy. The paper examines the ‘thickness’ of political inclusion based on the relationship between citizenship and electoral rights at two stages: de jure and de facto. It reveals that the democratic rights of citizenship and voting are grounded not only in formal inclusion but, more importantly, in the accurate procedures involving those rights and access to them. The analysis demonstrates that extensive citizenship and voting rights are not necessarily associated with the factual political inclusion of all diaspora groups equally.

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